Saturday, November 26, 2011

Myna in Kicau Nusantara

The Common Myna or Indian Myna (Acridotheres tristis) also sometimes spelled Mynah, is a member of family Sturnidae, (starlings and mynas) native to Asia. An omnivorous open woodland bird with a strong territorial instinct, the Myna has adapted extremely well to urban environments. The myna has been introduced in many other parts of the world and its distribution range is on the increase. It is a serious threat to the ecosystems of Australia. The Common Myna is an important motif in Indian culture and appears both in Sanskrit and Prakrit literature.

The Common Myna
is readily identified by the brown body, black hooded head and the bare yellow patch behind the eye. The bill and legs are bright yellow. There is a white patch on the outer primaries and the wing lining on the underside is white. The sexes are similar and birds are usually seen in pairs.

The Common Myna obeys Gloger's rule in that the birds from northwest India tend to be paler than their darker counterparts in South India.

Morphometry / Morphometry

Body length:23 cms.
Parameter/sex Male Female
Average weight (gms) 109.8 120-138
Wing chord (mm) 138-153 138-147
Bill (mm) 25-30 25-28
Tarsus (mm) 34-42 35-41
Tail (mm) 81-95 79-96


It is a species of bird native to Asia with its initial home range spanning from Iran, the entire South Asian subcontinent, including Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka; as well as Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Myanmar, to Malaysia, peninsular Thailand, Indo-China and China.

The Myna has been introduced in many other parts of the world such as Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii, South Africa, and islands in the Indian Ocean (Seychelles, Mauritius, Maldives, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep archipelago and also in islands of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The range of the Common Myna is increasing to the extent that in 2000 the IUCN Species Survival Commission declared it among the World's 100 worst invasive species. The Myna is one of only three birds in this list of invasive species.[citation needed]

Taxonomy and subspecies
The Common Myna has two subspecies:

Acridotheres tristis tristis (Linnaeus, 1758). Widespread, including Sri Lanka.
A. t. melanosternus Legge, 1879. Endemic to Sri Lanka.
The subspecies melanosternus is darker than the nominate subspecies, has half-black and half-white primary coverts and has a larger yellow cheek-patch.

The type locality of the nominate subspecies is Pondicherry, India.

Behaviour / Vocalisation

Common Myna holding plastic in beak.

Turquoise blue-coloured egg of Common Myna.The calls includes croaks, squawks, chirps, clicks and whistles, and the bird often fluffs its feathers and bobs its head in singing. The Common Myna screeches warnings to its mate or other birds in cases of predators in proximity or when its about to take off flying. Common Mynas are popular as cage birds for their singing and "speaking" abilities. Before sleeping in communal roosts, mynas vocalise in unison which is called as "communal noise".
beo,pleci jantan dan betina,hill myna,myna,flora borneo


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